By Janice Jones |Last Updated 11-22-2021
though they may be small, dog ticks are external parasites that suck blood from
your dog and you and can cause a variety of diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted
fever, Lyme disease, and Ehrlichiosis.
On June 18, 2017, The Washington Post reported that with warming temperatures related to climate change, we are likely to see more vermin including ticks.
Global warming is giving many pests the opportunity to thrive and this spells bad news not only to our dogs but to us as well.
With warming temperatures and milder winters, many areas are seeing a rise in the mice populations because it never gets cold enough to kill them off.
Mice are often the vectors that bring ticks into our homes.
They look like insects, but Ticks are really arachnids, the same family as spiders and scorpions, meaning they have 8 legs instead of the normal 6 legs found in insects.
They do damage to their host by attaching themselves, sucking blood and transmitting disease. The main issue with dog ticks is not the skin problems they cause, but the disease they can transmit.
There are several types of ticks that
live in North America including the American Dog Tick, the Lone Star Tick,
Brown Dog Tick and the Deer or Black Legged Tick.
Each carry different diseases, and if a dog
or human is bitten, it is advisable to collect the tick for
identification. Rarely anemia is a problem
if the dog is severely affected with a major infestation of ticks.
There are four main types of dog ticks found in the United States:
American Dog Tick
The adult American dog tick is brown
with white spots or streaks on their backs.
They are found in grassy areas and walkways and trails.
After they have taken a blood meal and become
engorged, they appear gray and resemble a bean.
They feed on different hosts, including mice, deer, dogs and
The nymphs and adults can
transmit diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Tularemia. These ticks
can survive for up to 2 years in any stage if no host is found.
Lone Star Tick
Lone Star ticks can bite dogs, cats,
and humans. The adults are tan or brown, and you can observe a white spot
on the back.
These ticks live in woodland areas and are most commonly found in
areas along creeks and river bottoms where animals like to rest.
The larvae don’t carry any diseases, but the
nymph and adult stages transmit the diseases Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted
Fever and Stari Borreliosis.
Brown Dog Tick
This is a relatively harmless tick
which attaches to the dog and sometimes though rarely to people.
They are also known as a house or kennel tick
because it can survive and develop through its lifecycle indoors. You are most likely to find this tick in kennels
or homes where many dogs live.
news about this type of tick is that it does not carry any known diseases.
Deer or Black-legged Tick
This is the tick that carries diseases
including Lyme Disease, Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis.
They like to attach to dogs, cats and even people.
They look like the brown dog tick, but they are
deeper darker brown in color. The Deer tick nymph stage resembles poppy seeds
on yours or your dog’s skin.
If you live in the northeastern part of the US,
and you get bit by a tick in the Fall or Winter, you may be dealing with the
50% of adult Blacklegged ticks are infected with the Lyme bacteria, so this
tick is definitely one to be concerned about.
These are the most common types of ticks, but Companion Animal Parasite Council reports that there are a least eight species of dog ticks including:
Amblyomma americium (Lone star tick)
Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick)
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)
Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain Wood Tick)
Ixodes pacificus (Western black-legged tick)
Ixodes scapulars (Black-legged tick)
Otobius megnini (Spinose ear tick)
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Brown dog tick)
Where do Dog Ticks Live?
Ticks hang out in wooded areas often in tall grass waiting for a warm
blooded animal to pass.
Once a suitable
host is found, they will attach themselves and feast on the blood of its
host. They will not drop off until their
meal is complete.
Some ticks will feed for hours or even days. Ticks particularly like the areas on your dog
where there is less hair: around the
ears, between skin folds, between toes, and inner legs.
Although the signs of tick infestation
can mimic other skin conditions, you are likely to notice scratching or shaking
of the head, chewing on the feet or biting on the hindquarters.
If nothing is done, hair loss, red scaly
flaking skin and hot spots develop. If
you notice any of these symptoms, it is time to check your dog for external
Life Stages of the Dog Tick
Most ticks go through four distinct stages: egg, larvae, (practically microscopic in size
and have 6 legs) nymph, (about the size of a pin head and have 8 legs) and
adult (larger with 8 legs).
eggs, all stages of the tick will attach to the host (dog or you) for a blood
meal, and this is necessary for the tick to mature to the next life stage. Adult female ticks can lay thousands of eggs
at one time.
Why worry about Dog Ticks
“Forty to 90 percent of white-footed mice carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme disease, and they provide the first blood meals for blacklegged ticks, also known as deer ticks, which can transmit the disease to humans.”
If that isn’t scary in and of itself, ticks are also responsible for many other problems:
- Skin Infections
- Lyme Disease
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Hot Spots
- Tick Paralysis
due to loss of blood
How to Remove a Tick
You don’t need to rush off to the vet
to have a tick removed from your dog. It
is easier than you think.
You will need:
- Pair of gloves
- Clean pair of pointy tweezers
- Antiseptic such as Hydrogen Peroxide
- Isopropyl alcohol
To Remove a Tick:
It is best to
wear plastic gloves if you have them available.
Using your tweezers, grasp the tick as close as you can to the dog’s
skin without pinching the skin.
Pull slowly and
outward in a steady motion, making sure you remove the entire tick. If the head part is still attached, it can cause
infection. That is why it is necessary
to pull slowly. If you’re using a tick remover:
Add a little isopropyl
alcohol or rubbing alcohol in a container.
Drop the tick into the container and
mark the date on the container. The
alcohol will kill the tick.
As long as
your dog does not show any signs or symptoms of the disease, you are
finished. However, it the dog begins to appear
sick, you will want to call your vet and have the tick available for
Can People Get Diseases from their Dog’s Ticks?
This is an excellent question but a little tricky to answer. People do get diseases from ticks but they don’t get the disease from their dog. They get the disease directly from being bitten by a tick that carries a disease.
Diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme Disease are diseases that affect both dogs and their owners.
It is very difficult to prevent ticks from attaching to your
dog if he or she spends time outdoors in areas where ticks live.
Whether it is your backyard, a neighborhood
walk, hike in the woods or an overnight camping trip, ticks can be
present. The best prevention is to check
your dog regularly after outdoor activity and remove the tick promptly if
If ticks are a problem in your area, you can use an outdoor
yard spray to keep them out of your yard.
Backyards that are clear of woods are less likely to be infested.
A fence can help if your property butts up to
a forested area, but you will want to create a physical barrier such as a three
foot strip of gravel or mulch between your property and the forest.
Reference and Further Reading
A great resource for identifying ticks in all of their life stages can be
found at a site provided by the University of Rhode Island:
Tick Encounter Resource Center: http://www.tickencounter.org/tick_identification
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